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Linux – 指令: BADBLOCKS

BADBLOCKS(8) System Manager’s Manual BADBLOCKS(8)

NAME

badblocks – search a device for bad blocks

SYNOPSIS

badblocks [ -svwnfBX ] [ -b block_size ] [ -c blocks_at_once ] [ -d
read_delay_factor ] [ -e max_bad_blocks ] [ -i input_file ] [ -o out‐
put_file ] [ -p num_passes ] [ -t test_pattern ] device [ last_block ]
[ first_block ]

DESCRIPTION

badblocks is used to search for bad blocks on a device (usually a disk
partition). device is the special file corresponding to the device
(e.g /dev/hdc1). last_block is the last block to be checked; if it is
not specified, the last block on the device is used as a default.
first_block is an optional parameter specifying the starting block num‐
ber for the test, which allows the testing to start in the middle of
the disk. If it is not specified the first block on the disk is used
as a default.

Important note: If the output of badblocks is going to be fed to the
e2fsck or mke2fs programs, it is important that the block size is prop‐
erly specified, since the block numbers which are generated are very
dependent on the block size in use by the filesystem. For this reason,
it is strongly recommended that users not run badblocks directly, but
rather use the -c option of the e2fsck and mke2fs programs.

注意:若 badblocks 的輸出檔要作為 e2fsck 或 mke2fs 程式的輸入檔,設定合適的區塊大小很重要,因為區塊數目相當依賴資料系統的區塊大小。

因為強烈建議不要直接使用 badblocks,使用 e2fsck 和 mke2fs 程式的 -c 選項會好一點。

OPTIONS

-b block_size

Specify the size of blocks in bytes. The default is 1024.

設定多少byte為1個區塊,預設為1024

-c number of blocks

is the number of blocks which are tested at a time. The default
is 64.

同時測試的區塊數目,預設為64

-d read delay factor

This parameter, if passed and non-zero, will cause bad blocks to
sleep between reads if there were no errors encountered in the
read operation; the delay will be calculated as a percentage of
the time it took for the read operation to be performed. In
other words, a value of 100 will cause each read to be delayed
by the amount the previous read took, and a value of 200 by
twice the amount.

此選項若不為0,之前讀取時損壞區塊沒有發生錯誤,則此次讀取時損壞區塊會休眠,並延遲讀取。

延遲讀取的時間以上次讀取時間的百分比算,100 為 一倍時間,200 為兩倍時間。

-e max bad block count

Specify a maximum number of bad blocks before aborting the test.
The default is 0, meaning the test will continue until the end
of the test range is reached.

設定中斷檢測的最高損壞區塊的數量,0 為完整執行檢測範圍

-f

Normally, badblocks will refuse to do a read/write or a non-de‐
structive test on a device which is mounted, since either can
cause the system to potentially crash and/or damage the filesys‐
tem even if it is mounted read-only. This can be overridden us‐
ing the -f flag, but should almost never be used — if you
think you’re smarter than the badblocks program, you almost cer‐
tainly aren’t. The only time when this option might be safe to
use is if the /etc/mtab file is incorrect, and the device really
isn’t mounted.

強制 badblocks 執行檢測掛載中的裝置,永遠都不該使用此選項。除非 /etc/mtab 的檔案是錯誤的,而且裝置真的非掛載中!

-i input_file

Read a list of already existing known bad blocks. Badblocks
will skip testing these blocks since they are known to be bad.
If input_file is specified as “-“, the list will be read from
the standard input. Blocks listed in this list will be omitted
from the list of new bad blocks produced on the standard output
or in the output file. The -b option of dumpe2fs(8) can be used
to retrieve the list of blocks currently marked bad on an exist‐
ing filesystem, in a format suitable for use with this option.

導入已知損壞區塊檔案,並在執行檢測時跳過。此時導出的已知損壞區塊檔案不包含導入的已知損壞區塊,使用 dumpe2fs(8) 的 -b 選項可以取得當前系統所有已知的損壞區塊名單。

-n Use non-destructive read-write mode.

By default only a non-de‐structive read-only test is done. This option must not be com‐
bined with the -w option, as they are mutually exclusive.

非破壞性讀寫模式,預設為非破壞性讀取模式。此選項不應與 -w 選項一起使用,兩者並不相容。

-o output_file

Write the list of bad blocks to the specified file. Without
this option, badblocks displays the list on its standard output.
The format of this file is suitable for use by the -l option in
e2fsck(8) or mke2fs(8).

導出損壞區塊檔案,無此選項時結果將顯示在終端機上。此檔案適用於  e2fsck(8) 或 mke2fs(8) 的 -l 選項.

-p num_passes

Repeat scanning the disk until there are no new blocks discov‐
ered in num_passes consecutive scans of the disk. Default is 0,
meaning badblocks will exit after the first pass.

在循環檢測的次數內找不到損壞區塊後才中止。預設為0,表示檢測時完整跑完一次找不到損壞區塊後中止。

-s Show the progress of the scan

by writing out rough percentage
completion of the current badblocks pass over the disk. Note
that badblocks may do multiple test passes over the disk, in
particular if the -p or -w option is requested by the user.

顯示檢測進度。注意,使用者若有輸入 -p 或 -w 選項,則可能會執行多次循環檢測

-t test_pattern

Specify a test pattern to be read (and written) to disk blocks.
The test_pattern may either be a numeric value between 0 and
ULONG_MAX-1 inclusive, or the word “random”, which specifies
that the block should be filled with a random bit pattern. For
read/write (-w) and non-destructive (-n) modes, one or more test
patterns may be specified by specifying the -t option for each
test pattern desired. For read-only mode only a single pattern
may be specified and it may not be “random”. Read-only testing
with a pattern assumes that the specified pattern has previously
been written to the disk – if not, large numbers of blocks will
fail verification. If multiple patterns are specified then all
blocks will be tested with one pattern before proceeding to the
next pattern.

使用特別測試樣本做讀寫檢測。

-v Verbose mode.

Will write the number of read errors, write er‐
rors and data- corruptions to stderr.

將讀,寫與資料錯誤的數量顯示在終端上

-w Use write-mode test.

With this option, badblocks scans for bad
blocks by writing some patterns (0xaa, 0x55, 0xff, 0x00) on ev‐
ery block of the device, reading every block and comparing the
contents. This option may not be combined with the -n option,
as they are mutually exclusive.

寫入檢測,不應與 -n 選項一起使用,兩者並不相容。

-B

Use buffered I/O and do not use Direct I/O, even if it is avail‐
able.

使用緩衝輸入/輸入,不使用直接輸入/輸入

-X Internal flag

only to be used by e2fsck(8) and mke2fs(8). It
bypasses the exclusive mode in-use device safety check.

使用於 e2fsck(8) 與 mke2fs(8) 的內部標籤,它會繞過使用裝置中安全檢查的獨占模式?!(exclusive mode)

WARNING

Never use the -w option on a device containing an existing file system.
This option erases data! If you want to do write-mode testing on an
existing file system, use the -n option instead. It is slower, but it
will preserve your data.

絕對不要使用 -w 來測試資料系統,此選項會刪除資料。若要在資料系統上執行讀寫測試,請使用 -n 選項,此執行會慢一點,但不損壞資料。

The -e option will cause badblocks to output a possibly incomplete list
of bad blocks. Therefore it is recommended to use it only when one
wants to know if there are any bad blocks at all on the device, and not
when the list of bad blocks is wanted.

-e 選項可能造成輸出的損壞區塊檔案不完整。只有在想知道是否有損壞區塊,而不是完整損壞區塊名單時使用

AUTHOR

badblocks was written by Remy Card <[email protected]>. Current
maintainer is Theodore Ts’o <[email protected]>. Non-destructive
read/write test implemented by David Beattie <[email protected]>.

AVAILABILITY

badblocks is part of the e2fsprogs package and is available from
http://e2fsprogs.sourceforge.net.

SEE ALSO
e2fsck(8), mke2fs(8)

E2fsprogs version 1.45.5 January 2020 BADBLOCKS(8)

(資料來源,終端對於badblocks的說明:man badblocks)

實際應用,延伸閱讀:ubuntu live usb badblocks 硬碟壞軌檢測

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